4 edition of Visible and near-infrared reflectivities in a mid-latitude glacier basin found in the catalog.
Visible and near-infrared reflectivities in a mid-latitude glacier basin
Paul M. Cutler
1991 by National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada in Ottawa .
Written in English
|Series||Canadian theses = Thèses canadiennes|
|The Physical Object|
The glacier is north of Juneau, Alaska, and is extremely thick - measuring 4, feet (1, meters) from surface to bed - and is also the largest in the Juneau Icefield. When the permeability to air has reached almost zero, the firn has become glacier ice. This change occurs in a relatively narrow density range around – g/cm3, at depths of greater than 30 l size has increased to about 1 cm. Firn is transformed into glacier .
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Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectivities in a Mid-Latitude Glacier Basin: Mackay: David Scott: Knowledge Based Classification of Higher Order Terrain Objects on Digital Elevation Models: Mcintosh: Debbie Lou: The Environmental Management Plan and the Ontario Environmental Assessment Process: Spencer: Christine Sara Anne.
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a fast and nondestructive technique that provides multiconstituent analysis of virtually any matrix. It covers the wavelength range adjacent to the mid-infrared and extends up to the visible region. Optical visible and near infrared.
The optical visible and near infrared (VNIR) regions of electromagnetic spectrum (– μm) are the workhorses of remote sensing. The sensors in the VNIR measure radiance radiated from the object, which is related to the reflectance Cited by: 2.
Showing spectral reflectance of snow in visible and near IR region (O'Brian and Munis, ).: Satellite sensors for snow-cover mapping Showing IRS P3 WiFS images in visible ( nm) and SWIR. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), uses the difference in Landsat’s red and near-infrared reflectivity to assess vegetation, health.
But bya small lake had formed, referred to as Bear Glacier Lagoon. year, beginning on daywill overlap the first composite of the. An energy balance model of surface climate and melt for a glacierized area is described, and applied to simulate ablation and net mass balance on Peyto Glacier.
Surface characteristics are assigned according to general knowledge from physical climatology and experimental data from the glacier itself.  The corresponding spectral surface reflectance (– µm) over the WH snow cover for 15 June is shown in Figure 1d.
A significant gradient of ~9% absolute difference in the visible–near infrared (– µm, hereafter VIS‐NIR) spectrum is found, with enhanced solar absorption at shorter visible. Data were also obtained for glacier ice on the Athabasca glacier, for melting lake ice, and for certain other nonice Visible and near-infrared reflectivities in a mid-latitude glacier basin book in the vicinity of NARL.
Snow and ice albedos are characteristically highest at visible wavelengths, decreasing strongly in the infrared because of. The Sciences and Exploration Directorate is the largest Earth and space science research organization in the world. Its scientists advance understanding of the Earth and its life-sustaining environment, the Sun, the solar system, and the wider universe beyond.
The Directorate is part of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. A semicircular basin in which a valley glacier begins to form.
Arête. A narrow and sharp divide between two cirques. Horn. A pyramid-shaped peak formed when three or more cirques cut into the same peak. An example is the Matterhorn, a mountain on the border of Switzerland and Italy.
For the same site, a reflectance value of derived from integrating over most (– μm) of the reflective portion of the electromagnetic spectrum was quite different from the integrated. Smeets, P., Duynkerke, P. and Vugts, H. Turbulence characteristics of the stable boundary layer over a mid-latitude glacier.
Part i: a combination of katabatic and large-scale forcing. Boundary-Layer Meteorol Snow and ice are characterized by: 1) highly reflectivity (albedo) in the visible wavelengths ( – μm); 2) medium reflectivity in the near-infrared ( – μm); 3) low reflectivity and high emissivity in the thermal infra-red ( - 14 μm); and 4) low absorption and high scattering in the microwave.
recrystallization of snow. The Petermann Glacier located in the northwestern part of Greenland has suffered 4 major scalping events in the past 50 years: 1) (km2), 2) (km2), 3) (71km2), 4) (km2).Snow and Ice have high reflectance in the visible range and low reflectance in infrared region.
The wavelength of the white mica (illite and muscovite) Al-OH absorption band near nm in samples from the Belt Supergroup and associated metasedimentary rocks was determined with a portable visible and near infrared reflectance spectrometer.
Satellite observations of snow in the near‐infrared wavelengths can be used to roughly estimate snow grain size. When the grain size is large, it is possible to use measurements in the visible wavelengths to estimate snow water equivalence below some threshold value of around mm.
ASTER satellite image data contribute to a wide array of global change-related application areas, including the dynamics of vegetation and ecosystems, monitoring of hazards, geology and soils, land-surface climatology, hydrology, glacier changes, land-cover change, and the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs).
The ASTER high-resolution satellite is capable of producing stereo imagery. Seasonal snow cover is a vital natural resource in the Himalaya. Monitoring of the areal extent of seasonal snow cover is important for both climatological studies as well as hydrological applications.
In the present paper, snow cover monitoring was carried out to evaluate the region-wise accumulation and ablation pattern of snow cover in Pir Panjal and Shamshawari ranges of Kashmir. This study provides a high resolution glacier database in the Changme Khangpu Basin (CKB) using LANDSAT 8 () and Sentinel-2A image (), mapping of 81 glaciers that cover a ± km2 area.
Composite maps of land surface temperature, slope and Normalized differential Snow Index have been successfully utilized in delineating near accurate debris cover boundary of glaciers.
The first part of the book investigates the processes involved in forming glacier ice, the nature of glacier-climate relationships, the mechanisms of glacier flow and the interactions of glaciers with other natural systems such as rivers, lakes and oceans.
Rolstad, C., Amlien, J., Hagen, J., and Lunde´n, B. () Visible and near-infrared digital images for determination of ice velocities and surface elevation during a surge on Osbornebreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard. Annals of Glaciology, 24, – Google Scholar. = Advanced Spaceborne Emission and Reflection Radiometer (Terra).
The ASTER Imagine directory contains three image files, a 9 band image combining the three visible and near infrared (VNIR) bands with the 6 middle or Short Wave infrared (SWIR) bands in 30 m (uga-rwe_aster9b Snow and ice are characterized by (1) high reflectivity in the visible wavelengths, (2) medium reflectivity in the near-infrared, (3) low reflectivity and high emissivity in the thermal infrared, and (4) low absorption and high scattering in the microwave (Racoviteanu et al., ).
Glacier albedo normally increases with increasing cloudiness, and the visible wavelengths (– nm) are more sensitivity than the near-infrared wavelengths (– nm) to the presence of cloud (Gardner and Sharp, ; Abermann et al., ). The reflectivity of a substance is known as its albedo. Bright surfaces have high albedos (close to 1), while dark surfaces have low albedos (close to 0).
Pure snow generally has a visible albedo of, meaning it reflects more than 95 percent of the visible light that hits it. basin. a large hole in the ground that can contain water.
debris. small pieces of rock. moraine. a ridge of loose rock and soil created by a glacier and left behind when the glacier melts. ridge. a long and narrow raised area. Cirque. A bowl-shaped formation on a mountain made by a glacier.
horn. glacier ice – soil, dark grass rain forest = average reflectivity over the spectrum μm ALBEDO •Large variability in space and time •Key variable in glacier melt modelling •Ice albedo less variable than snow albedo, but often modified by sediment and debris cover Large wavelength dependency Typical values.
Darkut Glacier which is also known as Ghamu Bar Glacier is located at an altitude of about 2, m above sea level. The glacier is about 3, m long and the average width is m. The total area covered by glacier ice is approximately km 2. The snout of the glacier is partially covered in debris and saturated crevasses; however, the.
Detection and evaluation of lake surface areas. A single near-infrared (NIR) band reflectance, and reflective ratio indices between the NIR and a visible band, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) are widely used for water classification [2, 13, 19, 20].The simplest approach of water delineation is to generate a histogram.
Kulkarni A. V,Glacier inventory and Moraine-Dammed outburst floods in the Upper Chandra river basin, Himachal Pradesh, in Contributions to environmental Geoscience (Commemoration volume in honor of Prof.
Powar), eds: A. Pathan and S. Thigle, Aravali publication, New Delhi, pp. The fraction of visible light (f vis) was assigned a constant value of (89; ), and the fraction of near‐infrared light (f nir) was calculated as 1 − f vis.
The fraction of diffuse radiation (f dif) was estimated using the formula established by 72, and the fraction of direct radiation.
Snow on ice in the accumulation area of glaciers was separated from exposed glacier ice in the ablation area by thresholding the near-infrared band (ETM+ band 4 at – μm and OLI band 5 at – μm), along with an elevation and a slope criteria.
At these wavelengths, ice and snow have different brightness temperatures, making. Quantifying Changes in Glacier Thickness and Area Using Remote Sensing and GIS: Taku Glacier System, AK by visible, SWIR= short wave infrared, TIR= thermal infrared) (Adapted from Peduzzi and NIR Near Infrared SWE Snow Water Equivalent SWIR Short-wave Infrared TOA Top of Atmosphere x.
effects on the landscape. The glacier of interest here is South Cascade Glacier located on the crest of the North Cascade Range of Washington. It takes about - 3 hours to drive to the nearest trailhead from Seattle.
The glacier is SE of Mt. Baker and N of Glacier Peak. This glacier is within the Skagit River drainage basin. We present a collection of eight reflectance spectra representative of Mt. Etna volcano lava flows. The reflectance spectra were measured with a FieldSpecPro from nm to nm during a fieldwork in June The reflectance has been compared with reflectance obtained by multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and by hyper spectral EO1.
(2) is available from MODIS reflectance measurements, and K vol and K geo are known functions of θ, ϑ, and ϕ for each MODIS visible or near-infrared band. Equation (2) can then be used to obtain f iso, f vol, and f geo, and Eqs.
(4) and are used to obtain the black-sky and white-sky albedos for each band. An example of such a glacier is the Berg Glacier on Mt. Robson (Figure ), which sheds small icebergs into Berg Lake. The Berg Glacier also loses mass by melting, especially at lower elevations.
Figure Mt. Robson, the tallest peak in the Canadian Rockies, Berg Glacier. An ice sheet is a dome-shaped glacier mass exceed square kilometers. The world's ice sheets are confined to Greenland and Antarrctica.
This photo was taken during a flight over the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Bird Glacier is visible in the background, with Darwin Glacier in the foreground. —Credit: Courtesy Ted Scambos and Rob Bauer. Last. Crevasses rumple the surface of Crane Glacier in Antarctica.
—Credit: Ted Scambos, NSIDC. Glaciers are dynamic, and several elements contribute to glacier formation and growth. Snow falls in the accumulation area, usually the part of the glacier with the highest elevation, adding to the glacier's the snow slowly accumulates and turns to ice, and the glacier increases in weight.
How Glaciers Work There are two main types of glaciers. Continental glaciers cover vast areas of land in extreme polar regions, including Antarctica and Greenland (Figure ).Alpine glaciers (a.k.a. valley glaciers) originate on mountains, mostly in temperate and polar regions (Figure ), but even in tropical regions if the mountains are high enough.
Abstract We describe a time series of meteorological parameters and surface energy balance components of a seasonal snow cover from an automatic weather station ( m a.s.l., ° N, ° E), for a winter season from 1 December to 30 Marchlocated on a moraine close to the equilibrium line altitude of Chhota Shigri glacier, Himachal Pradesh, India.The optical properties of snow indicate high reflectance in the visible (μm), and parts of the Near Infrared (NIR) (μm) regions of the EM spectrum.
Snow reflectance demonstrates substantial decrease in the Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) (μm) due to increase in absorption.high reﬂectivity of snow and ice in the visible to near infrared wavelengths (–µm), compared to their low reﬂectiv-ity in the shortwave infrared (–µm) (Dozier, ; Rees, ).
Compared to other band ratios (Landsat 3=4 and 3=5), the NDSI glacier map was cleaner and less noisy.